The down side to the idea of the string theory uniting the theory of relativity to quantum mechanics is at least twofold. First it is assumed that everything in relativity is correct. It has been shown herein, i.e. the boxcar mind experiment, that this is not the case. Secondly, the string theory is said to cancel the infinities [1/0] of previous attempts at unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. It has been shown herein that 1/0 does not produce infinity but only nonsense such as the example given that 2 = 1. The expression or equation that contains 1/0 just does not apply to the problem at hand. The one used to show that light speed is a limit to velocity, for intance, is not applicable and the one given herein should be used. E = m X c squared, a variation of that used, and is thus shown to be in error except for at light velocity or for a particle at rest [vortex velocity at light speed].
Explanations for many experiments, for gravity, for the 20 year cycle for light velocity measured on Earth, etc. substantiate the premises herein. The replacement of Newton's gravitational formula and the extension of Kepler's formula greatly improves the accuracy of planetary distances and solar system mass relationships and thus is an added bonus. The explanation and proof of how the solar system was formed from an interaction of waves was another bonus.
The atom is shown to be a vortex [p. 120] that abides by the same laws present in the mechanics of the solar system or vice versa. Another verification that the microcosm and the macrocosm are both made up of vortex systems is the fact that in the same system, in either, the square of the orbital radius of one satellite divided into the square of the radius of another is equal to the ratio of one gravitational force to the other, i.e. [r2/r1]2 = F1/F2. Also, in the same system, in either, the orbital radius times the velocity is a constant for any single satellite regardless of its orbital radius [p. 120] which is one of the characteristics of a free vortex. This, in essence, unifies quantum mechanics and the laws of the Cosmos as outlined herein. The common denominators are the vortex and gravitation. This is the grand unification that has been strived for without success until now.
Gravitational force is said to be ten to the minus fortieth times the strong force. Since a particle, like the neutron, is a vortex, the angular flow should have the force called the strong force. V squared r for each planet is found to be identical. It is called, herein, circle G of the sun. For the Earth, the moon and all satellites have identical v squared r's thus providing a circle G of the Earth which is 3.989644343 X 10 to the twentieth cm. cubed/s squared [p 128].
It has been found by this author that the ratio of the mass of any planet to its v squared r [of any satellite around it] is identical and thus M/v squared r of any planet equals that of any other planet. This is logical since M is responsible for v squared r. This is analogous to vr being equal at any radius in a vortex and it is said that the angular momentum [mvr] remains constant in any isolated system. These formulae might also be important at the microscopic level.
One more proof that the laws of the macrocosm apply to the microcosm is that the hydrogen molecule, or atom, [an electron orbiting a proton] can provide a close approximation for the mass of the Earth. On p750 of the Introduction to Physics for Scientists and Engineers by F.J. Bueche , it states that the velocity of an electron in various orbits within Bohr's model for the Hydrogen atom equals V = [2.2 X 10 to the sixth m/s] / n. An atom of Hydrogen with a single electron is usually in ground state so n = 1 [p753]. Therefore V = 2.2 X 10 to the sixth m / s = 2.2 X 10 to the eighth cm./s. r of the first orbit = .53 Angstroms = .53 X 10 to the minus eighth cm. [p750]. The mass of the proton = 1.672652307 X 10 to the minus twenty fourth gms.
V squared r = 2.5652 X 10 to the eighth cm cubed / s squared. Multiplied by 4.35 times 10 to the minus fortieth [the ratio between the strong force and gravitational force within the hydrogen atom] the V squared r [circle G] due to gravitation = 1.115862 X 10 to the minus thirty-first cm cubed / s squared = circle G [proton].
The ratio of the circle G's equals the ratios of the masses therefore Circle G [Earth] X M [proton] / Circle G [proton] = M[Earth].
6.673 X 10 to the minus fourth cm cubed / s squared / 1.115862 X 10 to the minus thirty-first cm cubed / s squared = 5.98 X 10 to the twenty-seventh gms. for the mass of the Earth. Earth mass is calculated [using the present value for G] to be 5.979145075 X 10 to the twenty-seventh gms. The above result is close enough to say that all of the laws of the Universe are unified. If the ratio between the strong force and the force of gravity within the hydrogen atom could be obtained more exactly, the mass of the Earth would then be more exact and then the gravitational constant could be calculated more exactly since circle G [Earth] divided by Earth mass = G.
Pages 31 to 34 [Gravitation] are extended as follows: With respect to Paul Boynton's experiment consisting of two equal weights of aluminum and beryllium in a disc that was hung on a wire beside a mountain [p32], it may be thought that the nucleonic force [herein calculated as proton force] equates with gravitational force because the nucleons are responsible for the gravitational effect]. It does not. It was shown by this author's dropping tests [p33] that aluminum drops faster than lead because there is more nucleonic force downwards on the aluminum atom despite lead having a greater weight. Weight, a measure of gravitational force is not a measure of nucleonic force. Nucleonic force is due to the nucleonic angular momentum as the nucleon orbits within the atom. If there are more neutrons in excess of protons there is more mass and with respect to the total mass, the less angular momentum since the angular momentum of the neutron is only a percentage of that of the proton. It is the nucleonic angular momentum or velocity that determines the acceleration of the atom downwards due to the Magnus effect. The total effect is on the entire mass. Thus, two masses of equal weight but different composition can have different nucleonic forces which alter their accelerations.
Boynton's experiment which used the side of a mountain to gravitationally attract the disc horizontally [which would not be affected by the Earth's attraction because that is acting vertically and is counteracted by the supporting wire] would have greater acceleration from the aluminum than the beryllium side and thus a torque would be created to turn the aluminum towards the mountain.
If the force of neutrons is multiplied by .8424633 [p33], it equates with the force of protons and thus the force of both nucleons can be expressed as proton force. It was shown on p33 that since the neutron has 68.4922602% of the angular momentum of the proton, one half of the remaining 31.5073398% negates the other half due to the third vortex around a proton. Even though the effect on emanating waves is negated, it is still there and has to be taken into account when calculating the spin velocity of the average nucleon from which the orbital velocity is calculated. It is the orbital velocity that controls gravity, the ratio of which matches the ratio of dropping times.
The proton force can be thought of as the total spin angular momentum of the proton[even though part of it cannot be measured] which becomes a force through the Magnus equation when it meets resistance. Continuous force becomes gravitational acceleration
When an element's nucleonic force is calculated in terms of proton force per unit mass, it can be expressed by this author's equation:
F = [qN + P]/m
where q is the calculated factor equal to .8424633, N the number of neutrons, P the number of protons and m is the mass in terms of amu or atomic mass units [atomic weight]. If it is to be compared to the ratio of drop times, F must be inversed, as in table 1 [p32 & 33], because a greater force results in less dropping time.
The Orbital Curve of Matter in Motion- A New Cosmic Principle, Found by this Author, to Explain Planetary Spin
With reference to p183 and Sun's rotation p159
Since the Sun's gravitational field, its etheron field and its particle field is accompanied by waves of energy radiating outward through these fields, as well as revolving around with the spinning Sun and because they penetrate to every atom of every planet they cause the planets to orbit the Sun. The Sun revolves faster than the planets in orbit and thus its fields sweep and carry the planets in the direction of its spin.
At this point, an important principle is evoked. The balance between gravitational and centrifugal force maintains a curved orbital path, for the planet, around the Sun. Now, when a planet is forced to travel this curved path a point on the outer side [away from the Sun] is forced to move faster than a point on the inner side because it has a longer orbit to travel in the same time. In the absence of any greater forces in opposition, this causes the planet to spin because the force attempts to make this point revolve around the one on the inside. Of course, the next point in line is subjected to the same force once the spin commences. The amount of force depends upon the diameter of the planet [i.e. the distance between the orbits of the inside and outside surfaces] and thus the difference of their orbital lengths. The smaller the planet, the longer the spin period because there is less force. This is true of the planets in the solar system, from Earth outward, thereby providing evidence for this concept.
The gravitational field of the Sun does not consist of gravitational waves of specific parameters but just simply waves of any description, primarily the finer waves, that emanate from the Sun that create the Magnus effect in the nucleonic structure of the bodies being affected. Because of the inverse square law, there is a greater concentration of waves near the prime source and thus a greater gravitational effect. In nearby bodies such as Mercury and Venus [to a great extent] near the Sun and in the Moon next to the Earth, gravitational force is greater than the spin force and thus the spin is counteracted as gravitational force tries to direct the satellites towards the center of the prime source, against the momentum, like a ball on a tether. From the Earth outward, the spin is less and less affected by the Sun's gravity but the spin force also decreases due to a spreading of the waves. This latter is offset by the outer planets being larger and the arc of their orbit being flatter.
The orbital length of the outer point, on any planet, divided by the orbital length of the inner point is the exact same ratio as the orbital velocity of the outer point divided by the orbital velocity of the inner point. The outer orbit is longer so the outer point moves faster, in orbit, than the inner point. Relative to the planet, the inner and outer points travel at the same velocity but in different solar directions as the planet spins. Part of the inner velocity forwards, along the orbital path, would be canceled by its backward motion.
Let us examine this principle using Earth as an example. The following data is used for Earth from Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, fifth edition, and from calculations herein with new formula by this author.
Equatorial circumference = 4007516119 cm. Equatorial radius = 637816000 cm.: Equatorial velocity = 46518.96873 cm./s.: Orbital radius = 1.49597870 X 10 to the thirteenth cm.: Orbital period = 31471949 seconds: Rotational period = 23.93 hours [mean sidereal day].
Since the orbital radius is to the Earth's center, the orbital radius to the inner point is this minus one half of the diameter and to the outer point it is this plus one half of the diameter. The orbital radius to the inner point = 1.495914918 X10 to the thirteenth cm. and its circumference is 9.399110633 X 10 to the thirteenth cm. To the outer point it is 1.496042481 X 10 to the thirteenth and its circumference is 9.399912135 X 10 to the thirteenth.
The orbital circumference divided by its orbital period equals its orbital velocity. The outer velocity = 2986758.823 cm./s. The inner velocity = 2986504.14 cm./s. The inner velocity [relative to the Earth]is 2986504.14 cm./s minus 46518.96873 cm./s [Earth's present average velocity of rotation backward along the orbit] which is 2939985.171 cm./s. The difference beween the two is 46773.652 cm./s which is the surplus of the outer, that is greater than the inner, after the two are equalized by Earth. This surplus goes into the rotation of the planet. By dividing the Earth's circumference by this surplus we obtain the Earth's rotational period, the result of which is 85678.9228 seconds. This equals 23.8 hours. Since we are now seeing this from the orbital point of view, we compare this to the mean sidereal day, or one revolution, of 23.93 hours. This difference of only 7.8 minutes is small. However, there is another force involved. These calculations were applied to an isolated Earth, in the absence of other forces, which means before the moon was captured by the Earth, passing close to it, while they both were in orbit in the same direction around the sun [p.159 within the section titled "The Origin of the Solar system" p.147] For a period after capture, it would only affect the Earth periodically as it came close in its orbit and then went way out. It would not much affect the slowing of Earth's rotation until it settled into a more circular orbit. Astronomers calculate that the gravitational effect of the moon is increasing the Earth's rotational period by 1.5 milliseconds per century. The 7.8 minutes, above, can be accounted for by the moon if it finally reached this more circular orbit by about 30 million years ago. This is one half of the time since the extinction of the dinosaurs which would have occurred during the first close encounters. The more circular orbit at 30 million years ago seems reasonable. On p156 it is mentioned that Dr.Ovenden, head of the Astronomy Dept. at U.B.C. Vancouver, Canada, with the help of a computer, had determined that the area now occupied by the asteroid belt had contained matter 90 times the mass of the Earth that suddenly disappeared 16 million years ago. This was undoubtably captured by Jupiter as described. The oldest rocks on Earth are three billion years old. If the planets took this long to form in the standing wave nodes before clearing the area between them so that they could move to balance gravity and centrifugal force and thus capture moons etc., then it is not improbable that the Earth captured our moon 60 to 70 million years ago as described, along with the evidence thereof, and which would have occurred a little earlier in time. This close correlation establishes this new Cosmic principle.
Contrary to Einstein's theory, it is not space that is curved but only the paths, within space, of particles or bodies that are forced to follow them by the combination of gravitational and centrifugal forces.
In summation,when viewed from above, a planet will curve to the left when orbiting in the direction of the sun's rotation. This causes a spin of the planet of a like rotation as outlined and proven by using orbital data to calculate the spin of the Earth. However, if a planet or particle is caused to spin, such as by collision, a reverse orbit would occur with the arc curving to the right in the absence of other forces. If there is still a gravitational force emanating from a focal point, the object would either orbit in the reverse direction [as some planetary satellites] or else counteract some of the gravitational force thus changing the orbital radius or else tilting the planet's spin axis [as that of Uranus]. In the case of particles in a cloud chamber, their spiral, or corkscrew, path is explained by this principle.
Spin Curvature - A new name, herein, for the new Cosmic Principle
The laws of the macrocosm can again be demonstrated to apply to the microcosm. In the process Spin Curvature can again be established.
For example, let us examine a group of etherons, the medium of the Universe, which form the lowest energy electromagnetic particle by making up the first vortex particle capable of emitting field waves. This particle is known to be part of what is called background radiation with a measured energy of 2.73K. It was called the 3K or 2.73K particle. It is called herein the kaytron. From this energy it was calculated [p.10] that its wavelength is .177 cm., at the bottom of the infrared spectrum, and its energy in terms of ergs equals 1.122303723 X 10 to the minus fifteenth ergs. h [Planck's constant] used in these calculations = 6.626176 X 10 to the minus twenty seventh erg seconds. Velocity, from E = hv/wavelength equals 2.997925 X 10 to the tenth cm./s. which is light speed as measured on Earth. Its mass can also be calculated. On page 6, the mass of the etheron was derived to be 7.372615 X 10 to the -48th gms. Since energies are proportionate to masses, if kaytron energy is divided by 6.626176 X 10 to the -27th ergs, which is the energy of an etheron close to absolute zero, and made equal to the kaytron mass divided by the etheron mass, it is found that the mass of the kaytron is 1.2487313 X 10 to the -36 gms. This can also be verified by E = MCsquared, the conversion equation for matter at rest or at light speed. Its radius can also be calculated. 1.2487313 X 10 to the -36 gms.[kaytron] / 7.372615 X 10 to the -48 gms. [etheron] = .1693743 X 10 to the 12th = the number of etherons in a kaytron. Etheron radius [p7] = 9.983 X 10 to the -23rd cm. The volume of the etheron = [9.983 X 10 to the -23]cubed X 4/3pi =4167.463671 X 10 to the -69th cubed. The volume of the kaytron = 4167.463671 X 10 to the -69th X .1693743 X 10 to the 12th = 7.058612421 X 10 to the -55 cm.cubed. When divided by 4/3pi rcubed = 1.68.5119587 X10 to the -57th. r for the kaytron = 5.52344765 X 10 to the -19 cm. which is over 1100 times smaller than that of the electron.
Since the kaytron has a wavelength of .177 cm. and travels in a spiral or coiled path, as do all particles, with this wavelength being the measure between adjacent points on the coil,after once around the coil, the wave has an amplitude. The wave energy is known to be proportionate to the amplitude squared. A table was found on the internet which gives five examples of energy and the corresponding squares of the amplitudes found by them as follows shown by the numerical values.:
Energy - - - - - - - - - - Amplitude Squared
2099.66 - - - - - - - - - - - 100
8441.44 - - - - - - - - - - - 400
19058 - - - - - - - - - - - - 900
33727.2 - - - - - - - - - - - 1600
76101.9 - - - - - - - - - - - 3600
If the energy is divided by the amplitude squared, the five examples have an average ratio of 21.1. If the energy [ergs] of a kaytron is divided by 21.1, this = the amplitude squared which = 5.31897 X 10 to the -17th. The wave amplitude is thus 7.2931269 X 10 to the-9th cm. The direct circumference of this amplitude = 2piA = 4.5824068458 X 10 to the -8th cm. When the wavelength , .177 cm., is added to this, the total length of travel over the spiral wavelength = .1770000458 cm.. Propagation through space near Earth is 2.997925 X 10 to the 10th cm./s. If this is divided into .177 cm. the period is obtained which = 5.09040836579 X 10 to the -12th. The spiral wavelength velocity = C/P = 3.47712861289333 X 10 to the 10th cm./s. The spin curvature principle can now be applied.
The radius of the innermost point = 7.2931269 X 10 to the -9th [A] - 5.5234479 X10 to the -19th cm. = 7.2931268994 X 10 to the -9th cm. Its circumference = 4.5284067778 X 10 to the -8th cm. + .1770000458 cm. When divided by P, V = 34771295130.9749 cm./s. After subtracting the retrograde spin velocity of 2.997925 X 10 to the 10th cm/s, its velocity along its orbit is 4.7920361289333 X 10 to the -9th cm./s. The radius of the outermost point = 7.2931269 cm. + 5.5234479 X 10 to the -19th = 7.2931269006 X 10 to the -9th cm. The circumference = 4.5824067785 X 10 to the -8th cm. After adding .1770000458 it equals .1770000916 cm. After dividing by P, it equals V which = 34771295130.9749 cm./s. The outer V - the inner V =2.99792590020416 X 10 to the 10th cm./s which is the surplus velocity that goes into spin. Though the inner and outer radii and circumferences are different, the calculator couldn't handle any difference in velocities but the calculations show that the surplus outer velocity was essentially that of light speed for the spin of the kaytron, equal to that of propagation speed or showing that kinetic and potential energies are equal as outlined herein. We are not attempting to determine the rotation rate from the surplus velocity of the outer point since we need to know this before determining the surplus. We are verifying the rotation rate with the orbital data to show that orbital curvature is responsible for the rotation rate or possibly, in some cases, it is vice versa.
The Gravity Probe B Experiment
William M. Fairbank, with Schiff, Cannon and Everitt started the investigation that we now call the Stanford Relativity Gyroscope experiment and helped bring it to the point that put it into orbit as NASA's Gravity Probe B. Its purpose is to test the Theory of Relativity by detection of the drift of the spin axes of four gyroscopes if it interacts with a curved space-time continuum.
If there should be success, even in a small way, scientists should be cautious about attributing it to proof of Einstein's concept of curved space when there are alternative and more plausible explanations such as that described herewith.
An addition to page 186, just before the heading "The Ultimate Universe" is as follows: According to the Canwest News Service, Dr. David Crampton, an astronomer at the Federal Government's Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, B.C., Canada, said that Canadian Astronomers peered billions of years back in time to when they thought the Universe was only three to six billion years old and were amazed to find hundreds of billions of stars already clustered into huge galaxies in what was supposed to be an infant Universe. This is one more proof that the Big Bang never happened and that the Universe has always existed and is in a dynamic steady state as expressed herein.
Addition to p131 after the first paragraph is as follows:
If we now use the textbook data for the speed of the sun through space of 220 km./s [Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Sun 2001, p34]and the diameter of the galaxy of 25000 parsecs and a mass of about 10 to the eleventh times that of our sun [Cambridge p33 and Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia 1995] we can calculate the orbital radius of our sun around the galactic center.
On page 131, the mass of the sun is given which was calculated from that of the Earth, since the ratio of the Vsq.r's equals the ratio of the masses. [Vsq.r was found herein to be the same for every planet [p130] which gives the value for the sun and all Earth satellites give it for the Earth.] Likewise, The galactic Vsq.r can be determined from the galactic mass divided by the sun's mass [which is 10 to the eleventh] which is the same ratio as the galactic Vsq.r divided by the sun's Vsq.r. Once we know the galactic Vsq.r cm.cubed s sq. we obtain the sun's orbital radius by dividing 220 km/s [in cm./s] squared. The result is 2.757041322 X 10 to the seventeenth km. Divided by 3.0857 X 10 to the thirteenth it equals 8935 parsecs. According to the above mentioned Cambridge Encyclopedia, p33, the sun's orbital radius around the galactic center is 8500 parsecs. 8935 parsecs should be more accurate providing the galactic mass is reasonable. Of course, if the sun's velocity or the distance between the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxy [by which our galaxy's mass was determined] altered, due to a different measurement of the speed of light or a different medium density, in some areas, which might throw off the parallax method similar to a star's position seen near the edge of the sun, all of the dimensions could greatly change.
Kaytrons [the term used herein for the 2.75 particle mistakenly referred to as the background radiation from the Big Bang have been shown to be the 90% of our galaxy that is termed "missing". From the energy and density of his mass it was shown [p13] that the average speed of light in our galaxy was six times that which was measure here on Earth. An explanation was given. The relativistic factor [p83] was shown to be only a ratio between two observations, one of which was in error because the observer was travelling with part of the motion and thus was unaware of it. It thus does not apply to any limitation of the speed of light.
The medium in the galaxy could contain currents and density changes in an area because more matter in the area would drive the kaytrons and etherons away. Thus there would be less density near the galactic center than there would be near the its extremity. In a disk like the galaxy the radius of a point where all of the mass could be assumed to be located is Rsq.= 1/2rsq. R = .707r = .707 X 12500 = 8837.5 parsecs. This is quite close to that calculated for the orbital radius of our sun. This figure would also be the location of the average density of the medium within the galaxy and thus the average light velocity. If this actually is six times that measured on Earth this would change our measurement of the sun's velocity and thus a great change in the mass of the galaxy and in the sun's orbital radius.
Effects of Motion,The New Cosmic Principle
Another way of looking at the red shift is that when receiving radiation from the Universe we are receiving energy which are waves of motion. A receding star emanating waves of motion towards us has the motion from us subtracted from this and thus we receive less energy than we would if there was no recession. The amounts of energy received are seen by us as colors. Red is of a lower frequency or lower energy than other colors.
However, recession is not the only cause of lower energy. As radiation travels through the Universe it encounters other waves of motion. The farther it travels the more it is retarded by them and the less energy we receive. Thus the color does represent distance away from us but this distance is not necessarily the same all the time nor the same in other directions, but is subject to the amount of other waves encountered that is in opposition to it.
Now we look at the basic emission of energy waves. If we examine a cubic meter of space, we see a certain amount of energy passing through per second. At different elevations on a planet or in different areas of space, the amount of energy will be different. If we judge this volume by the fact that kaytrons [3K particles] have been found to be constant in all parts of the Universe and assume that these areas would be of the same energy, if the velocity of the waves passing through was the same, then the difference in energy in different areas would be due to different velocities. The velocities would be greater from denser content such as a rock versus an area of air. The denser material would exert a greater velocity to the pressure waves generated from the atomic nuclei because, being crowded, they would be driven to the areas of lesser energy such as from inside the Earth outwards. The greater velocity would create a greater motion of other matter towards it due to the Magnus effect. Thus greater mass creates a greater gravitational effect.
We saw, under the new cosmic principle heading, that a particle moving in a curved path will cause the particle to spin. Thus atoms carried around by the Earth's rotation will be caused to spin. Spinning atoms, in turn, cause the nucleons to spin. Their spin axis will be parallel to the Earth's spin axis thus lining up all the particles along "lines of force". As mentioned, waves of energy are emitted from the Earth's nucleons outward to the points of least resistance and they cause, by the Magnus effect, the particle to move inward as described. Gravity, then, is an effect caused by a combination of an applied cosmic principle and the Magnus effect.
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Copyright © 1977-2015 Mel Winfield. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 1977-2015 Mel Winfield. All rights reserved.